At what height do planes fly?
The maximum altitude at which an aircraft can fly is 11.000 m; this altitude is valid for all aircraft except for small ones (with propeller engines) and the Cocorde (16.600 m altitude).
Modern airliners fly at altitudes between 33.000 and 39.000 feet (10.000-12.000 meters). These values do not vary from one airline to another and have nothing to do with the aircraft model, but rather depend on flight planning and flight routes.
Climbing beyond the ideal altitude of 11.000 meters maximum, therefore, involves several problems, because you have to increase the cruising speed considerably, given that at great heights the air is too thin to allow the fuel engines to function properly.
On average, however, airliners fly at a speed of Mach 0,8, about 980 km / h. As for jets, however, we must make a distinction between the various categories of aircraft. The more "economic" categories, such as very light jets, have cruising speeds of around Mach 0,8, therefore 980 Km / h.
The troposphere is the part of the atmosphere closest to the ground, in which life develops, airplanes fly and meteorological phenomena occur.
The troposphere has an average thickness of about 10 km and all meteorological phenomena occur in it, such as the formation of clouds, precipitation (rain, snow and hail), thunderstorms and the movement of air masses (wind).
- The troposphere, with an average altitude between 0 and 15 km, in this space as mentioned previously there is 75% of the total mass of air that surrounds the planet, in this column of air fly hot-air balloons, small transport planes , helicopters, and sports parachuting is carried out with safe jumps not ...
In conclusion, airliners do not fly higher than 40.000 feet because it is not convenient for these reasons: You risk consuming more because the wings do not have sufficient lift and therefore you have to accelerate to have more air flow. The heavier the aircraft, the lower the flight altitude.
In this sphere there is a considerable concentration of water value and here the atmospheric phenomena occur. Precisely for this reason, airliners normally fly at an altitude of 12.000 m, therefore just above the Troposphere, in order to avoid disturbances.
One of the reasons planes don't typically fly over the Pacific Ocean is because the Pacific Ocean is so vast, with no land in close proximity. This is a precaution taken for safety reasons. This is especially true in the event that an aircraft should encounter malfunctions or breakdowns.
The Boeing X-43A is currently the fastest aircraft, having reached speeds of 11 200 km / h, or Mach 9,68, on November 16, 2004 (it is an unmanned prototype, but FAI also accepts guided aircraft).
As you go up in altitude, the air is thinner and thinner and this does not allow the engines to work properly. Jet engines also need oxygen to function properly.
The largest plane in the world, the Antonov 225, lands at Malpensa.
Compared to an airplane, it reaches medium speeds and lower altitudes (up to 300 km / h and no more than 6 m of altitude) and has a shorter range, thus allowing shorter routes. Today it represents the most widespread category of aircraft after the airplane, used for many civil and military uses.
The vertical thermal gradient usually has a negative value, i.e. the temperature decreases as the altitude increases. If the absolute value is higher than 10 ° C every 1 000 m (1 ° C / 100 m) the air is unstable (it happens in case of thunderstorms), if it is lower the air is stable.
In the free atmosphere the temperature of the saturated air decreases by 0.5 -0.6 ° C for every 100 meters of elevation, while in the unsaturated air it decreases by about 1 ° C / hm.
The air is not heated by the rays coming directly from the Sun, but above all by the heat stored and then emanated from the earth's surface. This heat in the mountains is more easily dispersed, because the atmosphere is less dense and because snow and ice, instead of absorbing them, reflect the sun's rays.
At height the helicopter loses lift because the air is too thin. In practice it does not support it ... It is difficult or almost impossible to maintain altitude and also the combustion of the engine is not optimal ».
Around the world, 26 planes fly a day. A phenomenon destined to grow with the boom of low cost flights. If 2016 billion people flew in 3,5, in 2035 the number of passengers will reach 7 billion.
A basic balloon consists of a basket that carries 3 or 4 people, which is the format most used by enthusiasts and should cost between € 15.000 and € 40.000, which includes: the basket, the balloon, the burner, a fan, etc.
Cappadocia (in Turkish "land of horses") is famous for the presence of these animals and in Goreme there are some manors where it is possible to organize excursions for a whole day.
As mentioned, the hot air is less dense than the cold air outside the cylinder, it is 'lighter' and rises, while the cold air occupies the freed space. This creates a current, a 'convective' motion, which contributes, together with Archimedes' thrust, to lift and fly our balloon.
The troposphere: what we breathe
The troposphere is the first layer of the earth's atmosphere, that is, the one closest to the surface of our planet. We are practically immersed in the troposphere, which has a high concentration of water vapor.