Epicardium what is it?
epicardium, the membrane that lines its outer surface. myocardium, the muscle whose cells provide the impulse necessary for the heart to contract (heartbeat).
What is the function of the pericardium?
The pericardium is a sac-like structure, consisting of two membranes, divided by a very thin layer of liquid, which contains and protects the heart.
What surrounds the pericardium besides the heart?
The upper part of the pericardium adheres to the heart and is called the epicardium, and the two surfaces merge in correspondence with the large blood vessels that branch off (or enter) from the heart. Below, however, the pericardium adheres to the diaphragm.
What is the innermost layer of the heart?
The heart also has a wall that is composed of three layers: the outer layer epicardium (thin layer), the layer middle myocardium (thick layer) and the innermost layer (thin layer) endocardium. The myocardium is thick because it is made up of heart muscle fibers.
Where is the epicardium located?
The epicardium is a membrane that completely covers the outer surface of the heart, making it translucent and smooth, and the initial part of the great vessels.
Cardio-circulatory system 07: Heart - Pericardium
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How is pericarditis treated?
Acute pericarditis usually responds to oral colchicine or NSAID treatment (such as aspirin and ibuprofen). Once the pain and inflammatory signs are relieved, the therapeutic dosage is gradually reduced.
What are the symptoms of pericarditis?
The most frequent symptom of acute pericarditis is pain, usually located in the chest or behind the breastbone. This sensation can also radiate to the neck, left arm, back and more rarely to the abdomen, it can be very intense or barely perceptible.
What layers make up the heart wall?It has a conical shape and is made up of overlapping fabrics:
- the pericardium, a serous sac that envelops and protects it;
- the myocardium, the "muscle" of the heart;
- the endocardium, which makes up the inner walls of the heart.
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
Walls of the heart
Under the pericardium there are three cassocks: from the outside to the inside, the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium.
What is the lining of the heart called?
Cardiac Wall Structure
The heart has a muscular component called myocardium, externally covered by a serous membrane, called the pericardium, which fixes it inferiorly to the phrenic center of the diaphragm and wraps it in a similar way to a sac, isolating it and protecting it from neighboring organs.
What causes pericardial effusion?
In most cases, the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space depends on inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) and nearby tissues. Pericarditis mainly results from viral infections; less often, it is of bacterial, fungal or parasitic origin.
What does mild pericardial effusion mean?
Pericardial effusion means a collection of fluid in the pericardial cavity greater than that physiologically present (around 50 ml).
How much rest in case of pericarditis?
Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis, which is classified according to the duration of the condition: acute pericarditis, less than a week, subacute pericarditis, between 7 days and 3 months, chronic pericarditis, more than 3 months.
What viruses cause pericarditis?Pericarditis caused by a virus
- Usual viral and cold meningitis caused by a group of viruses (enteroviruses)
- Glandular fever.
- Pneumonia and bronchitis caused by adenoviruses.
- Infections caused by cytomegalovirus.
- Infection caused by the Herpes simplex virus (genital herpes and fevers)
What are interlayer discs?
The intercalary discs constitute a complex and extensive system of junctions that carry out the mechanical and electrochemical coupling between the cells of the contractile apparatus (Goossens et al. 2007).
What is the purpose of the great circulation?
By large circulation, we mean that part of the circulatory system that has the task of sending blood (already oxygenated by means of the small circulation and rich in nutrients collected from the intestinal walls) to all tissues.
What are the phases of the cardiac cycle?
In summary, the phases of the cardiac cycle are: isometric contraction; outflow (rapid and reduced); protodiastole; isometric relaxation (rapid and reduced); rapid diastolic filling; diastasis; atrial systole.
Where is the women heart?
In the center of the chest, the heart is placed slightly obliquely, with the upper apex pointing to the right and the lower apex pointing to the left.
What is the thickest layer of the heart wall ever?
The myocardium therefore constitutes the real heart muscle, both in the atrial part (thinner), in the ventricular part (thicker), both in the right and in the left (the left ventricle is about 7 times more powerful than the other) ).
What are the blood vessels?
There are three types of blood vessels, respectively called arteries, capillaries and veins.
How is myocarditis and pericarditis treated?Healing
- Antibiotics: they are used when myocarditis is associated with bacterial infection.
- Cortisone and immunosuppressants: they are used when myocarditis is associated with autoimmune diseases.
When does pericarditis become chronic?
Pericarditis is considered chronic if it persists for more than 6 months. There are two main types of chronic pericarditis. In chronic exudative pericarditis, a slow accumulation of fluid occurs in the space between the two pericardial layers.
How is myocarditis detected?
Diagnosis is based on electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarker measurement, heart imaging, and heart muscle biopsy. Treatment depends on the cause and includes medications to treat heart failure and arrhythmias and rarely surgical treatment.
What is pericardial fluid used for?
Pericardial fluid is produced by the mesothelial cells of the membranes and acts as a lubricant on the outside of the organs in order to reduce the friction between them as the heart pumps blood.
What are the causes of pleural effusion?
The most frequent causes of transudative effusions are heart failure, cirrhosis with ascites and hypoalbuminemia (usually due to nephrotic syndrome). The most frequent causes of exudative effusions are pneumonia, cancer, pulmonary embolism and tuberculosis.