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# How is the covariance calculated? • Articles
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How is the covariance calculated?

Question by: Ing. Nathan Testa  | Last updated: December 29, 2021
Rating: 4.6 / 5 (11 votes)

Given two va X and Y, we call the number Cov (X, Y) = E [(X - E [X]) (Y - E [Y])] covariance. Covariance generalizes variance: if X and Y are equal, Cov (X, X) = V ar [X]. Similarly to the variance, the (easy to prove) formula Cov (X, Y) = E [XY] - E [X] E [Y] holds.

## How to calculate Excel covariance?

To apply the first method, just go to an Excel cell, and type = Covariance. P (C3: C14; D3: D14) o = Covariance. C (C3: C14; D3: D14) depending on whether you want to calculate the population covariance, in the first case, or the sample covariance in the second.

## What does covariance express?

Covariance measures how the two variables deviate from their mean values. ... This coefficient is used to measure the linear correlation between two statistical variables by referring to an absolute scale.

## How can the covariance be?

Positive Covariance: Indicates that two variables tend to move in the same direction. Negative Covariance: Reveals that two variables tend to move in reverse directions.

## How to calculate the sample covariance?

Calculate the Covariance by Hand using the Standard Formula. Calculate the mean value of x. The set described below is made up of nine numbers; to find the average data you have to add them and divide the result by 9. This means that: 1 + 3 + 2 + 5 + 8 + 7 + 12 + 2 + 4 = 44.

## Find 44 related questions

### How to calculate the covariance between two stocks?

Note that the covariance between stock 1 and 2 is a measure of the degree to which the yields of the two stocks tend to vary in the same direction. In symbols: Coeff. runs (1,2) = Cov (1,2) / (St. dev1 x St.

### When is the covariance zero?

Bivariate statistics and covariance

are the sample means of the two data series. ... Conversely, a negative sample covariance indicates that the data have behaviors on average "discordant". A sample covariance close to zero indicates that the data are not directly related to each other.

### How is the covariance of two variables calculated?

Given two va X and Y, we call the number Cov (X, Y) = E [(X - E [X]) (Y - E [Y])] covariance. Covariance generalizes variance: if X and Y are equal, Cov (X, X) = V ar [X]. Similarly to the variance, the (easy to prove) formula Cov (X, Y) = E [XY] - E [X] E [Y] holds.

### What does negative covariance mean?

where and represent the arithmetic means of the two data lists. ... Conversely, a negative covariance indicates that the data have behaviors on average "discordant". If, on the other hand, the covariance is almost equal to zero, we must suspect that the data are not directly related to each other.

### How is the deviance calculated?

The variance of a set of statistical units is obtained in 3 steps: First, the average of the variable is calculated. Then the deviance is determined: the difference of each observation from the mean is calculated and then the square is calculated. Finally, we add up all the squared differences.

### What is Codevianza for?

Codevianza: sf. from co- (first compound element) + deviate. In statistics, sum of the products of the deviations of two variables from their respective averages.

### What is the Scatterplot used for?

The scatter plot, in English scatterplot, allows you to visualize the relationship between two quantitative variables. ... The scatterplots, in English scatterplots, represent the most used method in descriptive statistics to evaluate the relationship between two quantitative variables.

### What does the Chi-squared index measure?

chi-square in statistics, index number (indicated with the symbol χ2, ie with the Greek letter "chi" squared) also called Pearson's or Pizzetti-Pearson's index; provides a criterion for establishing whether or not there is a connection between two statistical X and Y qualitative characters, by comparing the frequencies ...

### How is the correlation index calculated?

Therefore, correlations are typically written using two fundamental numbers: r = and p =.
1. The closer r approaches zero, the weaker the linear correlation.
2. A positive r-value indicates a positive correlation, in which the values ​​of the two variables tend to increase in parallel.

### What does correlation measure?

Correlation is a statistical measure that expresses the linear relationship between two variables (which therefore change together at a constant rate) and is widely used to describe simple relationships without having to talk about cause and effect.

### What values ​​can covariance take?

Another difference between covariance and correlation is the range of values ​​they can take. The correlation coefficients are between -1 and +1, but the covariance can take any value between -∞ and + ∞.

### What is the range of fluctuation of the covariance between two securities?

Uses of Covariance

If the correlation is equal to 1, it means that they move perfectly together, while if the correlation is -1 the stocks will move perfectly in opposite directions. If the correlation is equal to 0, then the two stocks will move in random directions to each other.

### When are two variables uncorrelated?

When the sign is positive, the variables are said to be positively correlated; when the sign is negative negatively correlated; and when it is 0, the variables are said to be uncorrelated. As the term itself suggests, covariance and correlation measure some kind of dependence between the two variables.

### What are variance and covariance?

The variance is the square of the standard deviation, and it tells us nothing more or less ... The covariance, on the other hand, indicates how contemporary the variation of two variables is. ... This measure is used to understand how much two series of random variables are related to each other, it is said, precisely: correlated.

### How is the statistical variance calculated?

To calculate the variance, add the squares of the differences between each modal value and the arithmetic mean (xi - μ) 2 multiplied by the relative frequency Φi of the class. Then the sum of the products is divided by the total number of the population.

### How to understand if two variables are independent?

Statistical independence between two variables

Therefore, two quantitative or qualitative ordinal variables are said to be independent when the bivariate correlation index between these two variables is close to 0. ... Also in this case, values ​​close to 0 indicate absence of association, ie independence.

### When to use variance and when to use standard deviation?

The variance is a numerical value that describes the variability of the observations from its arithmetic mean. Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of observations within a data set. ... In contrast, standard deviation measures the amount of observations in a data set other than the mean.

### How is the Treynor index calculated?

How to calculate the Treynor index

For example, assume the portfolio profit is 30%, the risk-free rate is 2%, and the portfolio beta is 1,4. We must therefore perform the following calculation: (0,3 - 0,02) ÷ 1,4 = 0,2, which corresponds to the Treynor index.

### What does the Sharpe index show?

The Sharpe index (named after the economist who introduced this measure) is an indicator that measures the excess return, compared to the risk-free rate, achieved by a portfolio (or fund) per unit of overall risk borne .

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