Who Invented Spoked Wheels?
Translated from English-
Although the first wheels of which there is evidence were sturdy, they were heavy: they consisted of 3 to 12 pieces. They were not very fast and not very maneuverable. Around 2000 BC, the need for greater speed led to the invention of the spoked wheels, created by the Egyptians.
The wheel was initially used to transport large blocks of stone or large-sized artifacts through the construction of rollers with tree trunks, in order to reduce friction with the ground.
In general it is assumed that the use of the wheel was preceded by that of the sled; later we began to roll weights on tree trunks. According to scholars, the wheel was invented in ancient Mesopotamia (by the Sumerians) in 2000 BC for the manufacture of pottery.
The chariot, which is believed to have been invented around 3000 BC in Mesopotamia, was likely first used in royal funeral processions and then later for warfare, racing, and hunting. The first carts had wheels that rotated on a fixed axis which was connected by a tie rod to the yoke of two oxen.
The Assyrian war chariot had light and reinforced iron wheels, aspects that made it agile and resistant at the same time. It was pulled by horses and had two seats: one for the charioteer, who drove it, and one for the archer.
The wheels used by the Sumerians were formed from a solid wooden disc. They were fastened with metal studs. ... The wheels were used by the Sumerians in the chariots pulled by onagers that is wild asses. These chariots were initially used only for warfare.
The most advanced Hittite chariots had wooden spoked wheels, were pulled by horses controlled with the bit and could accommodate three people: the charioteer, the warrior and the squire. ... The joints of the various elements, including the spokes, were made with strips of birch bark or wet leather.
The Indo-Iranian war chariot was introduced into Ancient Egypt by the Hyksos invaders in the XNUMXth century BC (so-called "Second Intermediate Period").
To transform these shepherds into fearsome warriors was an extraordinary discovery, that of the working of iron with which they built spears, arrows and curved swords that made them militarily much stronger than the peoples who fought with bronze weapons.
The English wheel is a piece of equipment that people can use in metalworking to create compound curves, such as those seen in a car's fenders, in flat sheet metal.
The first technical use of the wheel was probably that in the potter's wheel (ca.2500 BC), but there is evidence of the use of the wheel in vehicles from around 3400 BC.
How to use the spoke wrench
If you look at the nipple from above, the screwing is done by turning clockwise. In case you look at it from below, i.e. upside down, then you have to rotate it counterclockwise to screw.
The Sumerians were the first to give us an image of a wheel, but they weren't the ones who invented it. Today scholars agree in dating the discovery of the wheel in the Neolithic period, over 5000 years before Christ.
The first civilization to which the use of the wheel is normally referred to is that of the ancient Sumerians. However, scholars today agree in dating the invention of this to the Neolithic era, over 5000 years before the birth of Christ.
Not just history
But their ace in the hole was still another: horse breeding! Specially trained to make them fast, strong and resistant, the horses of the Hittites proved to be much more suitable for war purposes than the other animals used by other populations.
From 3500 BC onwards, he saw the flowering of great civilizations, such as the Sumerians, the Akkadians, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Hittites, the Hurrians, and the Cassites.
Sumerians. The Sumerians used a two-wheeled chariot pulled by a donkey on which two people could stand: a charioteer and an archer.
In the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries BC it extended as far as the Aegean Sea, in Armenia, in Upper Mesopotamia and in Syria, up to today's Lebanon.
The Hittites were an Indo-European people who settled in Anatolia (present-day Turkey) in the second millennium BC; their capital was Khattusha (near Ankara). ... Iron objects and weapons were instead an invention of the Hittites based on the metallurgy of iron.
There were two reasons for the military might and territorial expansion of the Hittites: the use of light and fast war chariots; a particular iron working process.
The Sumerians then developed a technique to make real bricks with which to build their houses: they mixed the clay with water and straw, poured the mixture into special molds and then dried them in the sun.
The peculiarity of this region is constituted by the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, from which the name derives which in fact means "land in the middle of the rivers" that cross it until they join in the marshy area near the mouth.
Ur was a city in Mesopotamia founded by the Sumerians around 3000 BC. The Banner was discovered by the British archaeologist Leonard Woolley in the royal necropolis of Ur during excavations in Iraq in 1927-1928.
The Assyrian army used iron weapons such as arrows, spears and swords. In addition, he used the ram which was a war machine consisting of a trunk with an iron tip to tear down the walls and horse-drawn fighting chariots.